Track 3 Session Details
AFCC Conference Breakout Sessions
Breakout Sessions are 90 minutes, each one has one moderator with a maximum of four speakers.
Breakout sessions will be focused on the following three subject areas:
Track 3: Renewable Specialty Chemicals
Track 3 Breakout Session Details
Renewable Specialty Chemicals
Monday, November 15, 2021
Session 1: 8 AM to 9:30 AM : New Renewable Chemical Platforms on the Horizon
Moderator: Rebecca Coons, Executive Editor, Industrial Biotechnology Journal
Alex Hutagalung, CEO, Levadura Biotechnology Inc.
Triacetic Acid Lactone as a Bioprivileged Platform Chemical
Seven chemicals derived from fossil fuels are the basis for all materials built by organic chemistry and are essential for virtually every commercial product. Renewable alternatives are needed to these petrochemicals and create novel functionalities that are not easily accessible today to enable enhanced end-use applications. Renewable chemicals need to be sustainable, produced at scale and allow for the synthesis of biodegradable materials. Increasing consumer demand for renewable goods has produced products in demand: 1) Genomatica’s Brontide, butylene glycol for cosmetics, 2) Impossible Food’s Impossible Burger, 3) Pivot Bio’s PROVEN, an engineered microorganism used as a nitrogen fertilizer and 4) Zymergen’s Hyaline, a flexible and transparent polymer for digital devices. We are developing technology to produce triacetic acid lactone (TAL), a “bioprivileged” platform compound capable of conversion into a wide range of chemical products. Our process relies on fatty acids as the feedstock, which can be obtained from by-products of the plant-based oil industry. Our novel process will also utilize carbon dioxide in order to biosynthesize TAL. As a bioprivileged compound, TAL can be converted into compounds such as 1) sorbic acid, a preservative, 2) a lubricant, 3) a corrosion inhibitor, 4) an antimicrobial and 5) an insecticide. The petrochemical industry has provided a template for success to the green chemistry industry - produce a few chemicals well that can collectively be converted into many different compounds. TAL should be on that list.
Pramod Kumbhar, President & CTO, Praj Matrix
Bio-MobilityTM to Bio-PrismTM : Praj’s Foray into Renewables Chemicals & Materials
World is abuzz with themes like Sustainable growth, Circular Economy, Carbon neutral/negative technologies, Recycling and Recovery, Responsible utilisation of natural resources. These themes primarily revolve around replacement of petro-based products with bio-based products, recycling of non-biodegradable products, cleaner and greener process for production of commodity products and replacement of hazardous chemicals with safer alternatives. Praj is significantly contributing to this global movement of Bioeconomy, with the Bio-MobilityTM Platform for renewable fuels and the Bio-PrismTM portfolio for Renewable Chemicals and Materials (RCM). These technology platforms reinforce Praj’s leadership as an innovative technology solutions provider for sustainability.
Praj’s R&D center, Matrix, plays unique role in the entire gamut of Praj’s perspective towards circular economy. Leveraging the cross functional competencies in the area of microbiology, molecular biology, fermentation & catalytic process development, optimization and integration backed strongly by engineering skills for successful demonstration & deployment, Matrix has developed technologies for productions of products having applications in cosmetics, nutraceuticals and pharma sector as a part of it ‘Bio-Prism’ portfolio.
The talk will focus on:
1. Ready to commercialize technologies “Vegan pharma grade Hyaluronic acid (HyafermTM)” made by fermentation of sugar, novel natural antimicrobial peptide AmyloshieldTM highly effective against dandruff, under evaluation at several FMCG companies in natural antidandruff shampoo formulation, purified Rice Bran wax (OriwaxTM ) and high purity Natural Vit. E (PrajoVitTM) and natural Phytosterols.
2. Technologies under development in the area of ‘bio-plastics’
Alex Michine, CEO, MetGen
Modern Biorefineries, challenges and solutions
The items (agenda) to present are
- Current state and challenges in modern Biorefineries
- Building whole value chain from feedstock to end customer supply is the key
- Challenges along value chain (pretreatment, enzymes, post sugar modifications and transformation to biorenewable chemicals)
- Market pull for biorenewables – another key to success (examples for biobased plastics etc)
- Lignin valorisation is the key to unlock economics of biorefinery with wood biomass as the source
- Overview of Lignin based solutions for different high value industrial application (sustainable packaging and replacement of fossil based chemicals with bio-based equivalents)
- Collaboration is the key word in building modern Biorefineries.
MetGen’s enzymes – MetZyme® – are industrial, highly-active, natural catalysts that accelerate chemical reactions and company uses advances in genetic engineering and microbiology to adapt enzymes to harsh industrial conditions and to handle a variety of lignocellulosic substrates.
MetGen is a widely recognized supplier of industrial enzymes, significantly contributing to the economics and sustainability of process industries such as biofuels and biochemicals.
Darcy Prather, President, Kalion, Inc.
Generating New Visions for a Sustainable World
By the end of the 20th century, petroleum derived chemicals and products dominated our economy. As society began thinking about more sustainable ways to produce products, we collectively and frequently limited our vision to drop-in replacements for the petroleum-based chemicals we rely upon. Now, as we look forward to the rest of the 21st century, our vision of the future has expanded, and we realize that biotechnology offers us access to a new world of chemicals not easily accessed from petroleum and with unique advantages over drop-in products. Fermentation can offer the world many useful things beyond a pleasant beverage or medicine. We can create better performing and low-cost chemicals. Kalion is at the forefront of that revolution with its process to produce glucaric acid. In direct application, Glucaric acid offers better water treatment, higher performing textiles, and stronger concrete to name a few. As a platform chemical, it serves as an intermediate for production of PEF and bio-based nylon. Come listen as we discuss its future.
Session 2: 10 AM to 11:30 AM: Performance Biobased Ingredients for Consumer Products
Moderator: Charlotte Bertrand, Senior Policy Advisor, Wiley Rein LLP
David Ramjohn, CEO, AlgEternal Technologies
From Idea to Business: Opportunities and Challenges of an Algae Startup in the Non-Fuel Space
AlgEternal Technologies, LLC uses its core patented technology to solve the critical industry bottleneck of producing algae biomass at commodity scale for use as feedstock for biobased manufacturing and ecosystem services. Algae Biomass has long been recognized as having diverse applications, and significant sums of private and public funds have gone into algae product research and development yet the industry has failed to deliver on its early promise, largely because of the inability to produce algae with the quality and on the scale necessary to support biobased industries. AlgEternal’s patented growth platform has been in operation continuously for over four (4) years, growing two lines of microalgae cultures, from which two finished products are currently on the market. AlgEternal considers itself to be in the algae farming business, despite having a line of facial skin care products with an algal extract and a line of algae-based soil amendments. The scientific literature contains numerous proven techniques for extracting valuable products from algal biomass; however, most of these processes remain at bench-scale. AlgEternal’s experience over the past 11 years can inform existing and future participants in the algae biomass industry on the emergent problems when scaling production. This presentation will condense the major lessons learned by AlgEternal, not only in finding technology and scientific solutions or sourcing funding, but perhaps more importantly on the importance of the fundamentals of business operations and corporate governance.
John Shaw, CEO, Itaconix
Creating Key Ingredients for the Next Generation of Consumer Products
Itaconix is dedicated to Polymers for Better Living™ to reduce the planet’s carbon footprint and address climate change with plant-based polymers. The composition of our polymers, our patented process to produce them, their performance as ingredients in consumer product formulas, and how these formulas are packaged and delivered to consumers contribute to the fight against climate change with plant-based carbon, sequestering carbon, energy efficiency, and lighter consumer products. We are developing our polymers as essential ingredients for a new generation of safer, more sustainable consumer products.
Biosurfactant Renaissance: Making Consumer Products Good for People, Brands and the Planet
The biosurfactant renaissance is here and with its arrival comes the next generation of sophorolipid ingredients that are transforming consumer products into formulations that are good for people, for brands and for the planet. The high-performing, multifunctional biosurfactants are now commercially available to replace surfactants in personal care, home care and I & I product formulations. Their multifunctionality brings cleaner and simpler ingredient options to brands with boosted performance and competitive formulation costs. Use of this next generation of sophorolipids unhooks formulations from the legacy petrochemical value chain, with no ties to palm oil or GMOs, and with a low carbon footprint.
A Carbon-Negative Molecular Manufacturing Platform Powered By Synthetic Biology
Synthetic biology holds the promise to revolutionize how we make chemicals, ingredients, and materials. But global scale manufacturing remains the largest impediment to realizing this revolution. Solugen was founded in 2016 to scale synthetic biology and decarbonize chemical manufacturing. By combining the best elements of fermentation with the best elements of petrochemical processing, we have created a unique carbon-negative molecular manufacturing platform: the Bioforge™. Leveraging the power of AI, the technology uses highly engineered enzymes together with heterogeneous metal catalysts under mild conditions that enable the use of safe biobased feedstocks such as sugar, air, and carbon dioxide. Solugen’s chemi-enzymatic processes achieve extremely high selectivities, throughputs, and yields. This eliminates the need for expensive carbon-intensive downstream separations and enables the modular construction of relatively small highly profitable manufacturing plants. In this presentation we will discuss the fundamental science and engineering underpinning the Bioforge™ platform, as well as case studies of Solugen products and their applications. Our first plant, Bioforge™ 1, is already operational. At 10,000 tpy capacity, it is the first manufacturing plant permitted in Houston without wastewater discharge or greenhouse gas emissions. We envision a future where a global network of fully automated Bioforges™, powered by synthetic biology, enables the safe, local manufacturing of the molecules, ingredients, and materials that we use every day.
We have assembled a diverse panel of CEO’s identifying and delivering on solutions utilizing industrial biotechnology and synthetic biology to reinvent the chemical industry using sustainable and low carbon solutions, delivering a wide range of products across a wide range of consumer needs. The products they offer exhibit clear benefits and advantages over the fossil-based materials they are replacing. These respected CEO’s will share their experiences as they have made their journey towards commercialization. Each will offer perspectives from their point of view in terms of where they are on their timeline to commercial products, and what are the differentiating factors that their technology platforms offer. This will truly be a do not miss panel that offers some converging insights from different product perspectives into the types of solutions that will have influence in meeting a net zero (and potentially net negative) carbon economy. Indeed, they offer diverse solutions towards a common goal of carbon emission reductions.
Timothy Bauer, General Manager, Fluid Quip Technologies
New sources of Carbohydrate Feedstocks for the Advancement of the Circular Economy
Using sugar as a feedstock, bio-based chemicals have been made for over a hundred years. In fast forwarding to 2021, citric acid has become a successful commodity chemical, with US$2.8B and 2 million MT in global sales, using essentially the same microbial fermentation process developed in the early 1920’s. In its wake, other biologically produced chemicals such as gluconic acid, itaconic acid, lactic acid, and 1,3-propanediol have also become global commercial bio-chemical successes. As the need to replace petroleum derived molecules is accelerating, the development of sustainable processes to advance the circular economy is critical. The key drivers for future accelerated commercialization of new bio-based chemicals are: 1) consistent, best-cost carbohydrate feedstock tailored for a specific biochemical production need, 2) Innovative process technologies with unique commercialization solutions, and 3) The rapid identification of genetic solutions for microbial production. New technologies for low cost glucose supply are commercially ready and need to be a part of all bio-based manufacturers economic evaluation. These solutions will serve as the catalyst to lower the activation energy for the next generation of technologies to accelerate the advancement of the circular economy.
David Glass, President, D. Glass Associates
Applications and Regulation of the Use of Photosynthetic Microorganisms in Biobased Manufacturing
There is growing awareness of the acute need to divert carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from emission to the atmosphere and to instead derive economic value by using such wastestreams as feedstocks for production of biobased products. Driven by this need and by ongoing scientific and engineering advances, the potential use of algae and cyanobacteria in biobased manufacturing may soon become a reality. As the use of photosynthetic microorganisms to produce chemicals, fuels or other specialty products becomes more technically and economically feasible, government regulatory agencies have been gaining experience in reviewing proposed uses of genetically modified algae and cyanobacteria. This presentation will discuss the regulatory framework in the U.S. that governs the use of photosynthetic microorganisms to produce biobased products. Applications of modified microalgae or cyanobacteria to produce fuels or chemicals would be regulated under the biotechnology regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Although such uses raise scientific and engineering issues different from the manufacturing processes typically regulated under these rules, the EPA has recently reviewed and approved applications for research use of modified algae in open-pond reactors and for commercial use of cyanobacteria in contained photobioreactors, creating a road map for companies planning to undertake such activities. This presentation will describe potential uses of photosynthetic organisms to produce valuable biobased products.
Thomas Jeffries, President, Xylome
Sustainable palm oil substitute from a novel yeast fermentation
Xylome scientists have developed a novel palm oil substitute based on the fermentation of corn starch or cellulosic sugars from agricultural residues. Sponsorship from the National Science Foundation in Phase I and Phase II SBIR grants enabled Xylome to genetically modify a novel yeast, Lipomyces starkeyi, to overproduce a highly pure yeast oil (YoilTM) that can be manufactured competitively and sustainably at scale, and which can replace palm oil. The engineered hyper-lipogenic yeast fermentation process can be integrated with conventional fuel ethanol manufacture by using stillage byproducts as carbon and nitrogen sources. Following extraction, the highly pure yeast oil is like refined oil obtained from palm oil plantations, but it avoids the destruction of tropical forests, is produced domestically, requires fewer refining steps, and can be used in foods and cosmetics. L. starkeyi does not natively produce cellulases or xylanases, but it is possible to rationally engineer appropriate enzymes into this organism to broaden the number of feedstocks available for use. A grant from the Department of Energy EERE program enabled Xylome to further modify the L. starkeyi genetic system so the engineered yeast can use pretreated cellulosic feedstocks. The resulting reduction in feedstock costs could enable production of biodiesel and jet fuel precursors from agricultural residues. Xylome expects to commercialize this novel sustainable technology through collaboration and partnerships with major grain processors and palm oil users.
Max Senechal, Chief Commercial Officer, SVP, CJ Bio America
Sustainability through innovative biomaterials
Through its CJ WhiteBio (CJWB) business, CJ Bio is developing and commercializing a new family of biopolymers and biochemicals based on its unique Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) platform. CJ’s strategy and development work are focused in the areas of: • Polymer Solutions • Coating Solutions • Personal and Health Care Solutions • Chemical intermediates for sustainable materials production We are enabling circular and sustainable solutions across these sectors by combining CJ’s world-scale biotech assets and expertise with a world-class PHA technology portfolio inherited from Metabolix and improved upon since. This presentation will provide an overview of CJ WhiteBio’s: • Strategic focus • Portfolio of technology • Current applications development • Roadmap to commercialization.
Biomass Fermentation for Food! – A journey of discovery through scale-up
Biomass proteins have been feeding people since the evolution of humankind, and could deliver new paradigms of nutrition and functionality to enhance the lives of all consumers! Superbrewed Food shares their journey of learning from native human and animal nutrition to discover natural, GMO-free solutions for delicious, whole food protein nutrition. We also discuss the influence that scalability and competitive economics had on the discovery and commercialization of our Superbrewed Protein, which is poised for market introduction in 2022 in a Superb platform of nutrition, protein and alternative dairy beverages.
Tuesday, November 16, 2021
Session 5: 1:30 PM to 3:00 PM: Alternative Advanced Proteins and Ingredients Platform
Susan Carlson, Division Director, FDA, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
FDA’s Evaluation of Fermentation-Derived Proteins in the GRAS Notification Program
While food ingredient developers are focusing their efforts on alternative sources and production methods for protein to meet emerging consumer preferences, the need for appropriate premarket regulatory oversight should not be overlooked. FDA’s GRAS Notification Program has proven to be a flexible regulatory program for ensuring that these new products are safe and lawful. This talk will provide an overview of the GRAS Notification Program, including a discussion of the safety standard and the elements of a GRAS Notice. Highlights of FDA’s history of evaluating the safety of proteins produced in fermentation production systems will be covered, followed by recent examples of innovative proteins, including a few from plants. Finally, practical tips for successfully engaging with FDA will be outlined.
David Demirjian, President & CEO, zuChem, Inc.
Production of value-added chemicals from biomass and bioproducts
The production of value-added products from biomass waste streams and abundant bioproducts is an important economic driver for biofuels and for the establishment of multiproduct biorefineries. Through collaborations with the US Department of Agriculture we have successfully developed new bioprocesses for production of xylitol and feruloyl glycerides. These products are now in commercial production. Xylitol is a specialty sweetener used in confectionary products because of its unique oral hygiene and sweetening properties. Traditional production methods require a pure xylose feedstock which is both expensive and available in limited quantities. Hemicellulose is an abundant and inexpensive waste stream that is rich in xylose but also contains other C5 and C6 sugars. We have developed an efficient fermentation that produces pure xylitol from a variety of different hemicellulose feedstocks including those from corn, bagasse, hardwood, and others. Soybean oil and other renewable vegetable oils can be inexpensive building blocks valuable chemicals. Feruloyl glycerides are modified oils useful in personal care products made by enzymatically linking ferulic acid to soybean oil, coconut oil and others. They possess the UV-absorbing and antioxidant properties of ferulic acid but are lipophilic in nature, readily absorbing into skin or hair, providing long-lasting protection against environmental damage, and enhancing the durability of other active ingredients. They can also be used as an SPF booster in sunscreens.
Production of Egg-White Proteins using Precision Fermentation
Clara Foods is developing a proprietary precision fermentation technology platform to produce animal proteins without the use of animals, initially focusing on production of egg-white proteins without chickens. Production of proteins and enzymes using microbial fermentation is a well-established technology platform that has been commercialized at industrial scale for decades. However, production of complex functional proteins of animal origin using fermentation at commercial scale is still considered a nascent and emerging field. This presentation will highlight the key attributes of the technology platform that Clara Foods has developed to produce nature-equivalent egg white proteins using precision fermentation at industrially relevant scales. These fermentation-derived egg proteins not only conserve the functionality and taste expected of egg white proteins sourced from chicken eggs, but also enable new end use product applications and functionalities that would not have been possible with chicken-derived egg whites.
Vincent Sewalt, Head of Science & Advocacy, IFF
Mind the Gap: How can regulations keep up with the accelerating rate of alt protein innovation?
The alt protein industry is booming. Innovators are developing plant-based, fermentation-based, and cell-cultured products to meet consumer demand for new tastes, sustainable choices, and healthier alternatives. How will regulators continue to safeguard consumers in an era of innovation, when they are often working with regulatory frameworks developed before the advent of new technologies? How can we promote more uniform thinking on risk/benefit analysis and greater openness to novel foods across jurisdictions? With both consumer demand and sustainable food solutions at stake, these are important questions for industry stakeholders to explore. We will explore how the fermentation industry (which deploys genetically engineered microbes to produce enzymes, proteins, vitamins, organics acids, and flavorings) aims to focus on the gap between existing regulations and innovation. Learn how science translation, communications, and new rigorous, streamlined safety evaluation and regulatory oversight systems can help evolve regulatory approaches. We will also examine the role of proactive outreach and collaborations to advance safety paradigms in various parts of the world and share learnings applicable to novel alt protein segments, such as cell-cultured meat and seafood, including a current example of establishing a collaborative road map towards safe cell-cultured foods, which will greatly benefit start-ups (in their development efforts), regulators (in premarket consultations), and, in the end, consumers.
Session 6: 3:30 PM to 5:00 PM: Sustainable Production of Renewable Bioplastics and Biomaterials
Moderator: James Iademarco, President, Strategic Avalanche Global Consulting
Stephen Galowitz, Chief Commercial Officer, Origin Materials
Shift from fossil to Decarbonized Materials
Origin’s technology replaces oil as the foundational feedstock for the material economy. Origin leverages the carbon captured by trees and plants through photosynthesis to make chemical building blocks that are carbon negative compared to traditional fossil feedstocks. The Origin process creates four isolated building-block chemicals, in one chemo-catalytic step with almost zero carbon loss. The total addressable market is over $1 trillion. The majority of our output is the versatile furan CMF (chloromethyl furfural), plus HTC (hydrothermal carbon), an equally versatile resin. While there are a large number of derivative products for CMF, our initial focus is to use our proprietary technology to make the existing drop-in aromatic chemical, paraxylene, which is the major component in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic for packaging, films and polyester textiles. Origin’s first commercial plant is expected to be operational in 2022 with a second commercial plant expected to be operational by 2025 and plans for additional expansion over the next decade. Origin technology enables fully recyclable, 100% bio-based PET for packaging, textiles, automotive applications and more. Origin PET can leverage existing recycling infrastructure, is chemically and physically identical to fossil-derived PET, while also being carbon negative when produced at full commercial scale.
Gunnar Lynum, CEO, SMD Products Company
SMD-70, A Bio-preferred Solution for the Concrete Industry, Providing Better and Potentially Stronger Concrete for Infrastructure Projects
Fossil fuels being used as a form-release lubricant causes harm to the environment. The solution is SMD-70. SMD-70 has over 30 years of usage and is now generating global awareness. A humble chemical formulation developed using US soybeans is even commonly used in cost competitive countries in Southeast Asia, where the environment is sometimes not a focus. Working closely with our partners in Japan, we are proud to say that SMD-70, made in the USA, was the form release of choice when building the 2020 Tokyo Olympic stadium, creating smoother surfaces while helping minimize the environmental footprint of new construction. Working with our academic partners we have now generated data which shows that using SMD-70 as a curing agent may also create stronger concrete, and minimize the unnecessary use of water which is commonly used when curing concrete. The application of bio-based solutions will help reduce the environmental impact construction has on waterways and populated areas, is renewable and sustainable, and will potentially create better materials for infrastructure projects. (A short, highly visual PowerPoint presentation showcasing recent projects (USA & Japan), unpublished academic research data, highlighting the benefits that are available when using a US made sustainable and renewable product that can help America invest in the future.)
Mark Miller, CEO, Biosynthetic Technologies
Innovations in High Performance, Environmentally Acceptable Lubricants (EALs): A Real World Perspective
Green initiatives are everywhere. Bio-fuels, wind energy, renewable fibers are just a few of the environmental initiatives that have recently made headlines. Meanwhile some of the greatest innovations have been in the development and utilization of high performance, environmentally acceptable lubricants (EALs).25th Annual Green Chemistry & Engineering Conference This paper/presentation focuses on the innovations, features, benefits, strengths and limitation of the different types of EALs. It explores classification of base fluids and additives as well as the requirements of finished lubricants. It compares the performance of conventional petroleum products and biolubricants. The different definitions of environmental acceptability why that is important will be explored. The regulatory driving forces will be identified as well as the requirements for each. The considerations for choosing the type of EAL that is most applicable to specific applications will be studied. Finally, the best maintenance practices to ensure long fluid and equipment life will be discussed.
Thomas Philipon, CEO, Total Corbion
PLA in the Circular Economy
In order attain a circular economy, we must first reduce our dependency on fossil carbon and make a shift to renewable carbon. Then we must utilize waste streams and products at their end-of life as the basis for new products, instead of disposing of them. PLA is biobased and has characteristics that enable the full range of sustainable end of life options.
• Mechanical recycling
• Chemical recycling / feedstock recovery
• Composting / biodegradation
This talk will show PLA makes an ideal solution for the circular economy and will provide an update on the BPI collaboration with USCC to increase access for compostables in the organics stream.
Sustainable Production of Biobased Chemicals
Climate change and intensive resource use are critical threats to our planet, leading many businesses to seek more ways of fostering sustainability in their supply chains, operations, and in their products to lower their carbon footprint and mitigate climate change risks. This presentation will showcase how Kraton sources renewable raw materials to produce sustainable solutions that advance the bioeconomy and address growing societal concerns to reduce global environmental impact. As the world's largest producer of pine chemicals, Kraton is a global forerunner in the bioeconomy, with nearly 100 years of biorefinery experience. Our materials are used in thousands of everyday products that enhance lives worldwide. We are a participant in the USDA BioPreferred Program, for our biobased products to be identified. Our EcoVadis Platinum rating further solidifies Kraton as a trusted, sustainable supplier in the industry as we continue to provide solutions that enable the circular economy. Kraton refines Crude Tall Oil (CTO) and Crude Sulfate Turpentine (CST) into specialty chemicals in our world-class bio-refineries. CTO and CST are 100% biobased and come from coniferous wood as co-products during the wood pulping process to produce paper. Our CTO- and CST-based products have significantly lower carbon emission footprints than substitutes derived from fossil raw materials or other crops. This presentation will uncover how Kraton turns these renewable raw materials into value-adding products offering high performance and sustainability advantages for our customers. Additionally, this paper will explore the ways our biobased chemistry helps various industries, such as adhesives, roads markings, and tires, address their sustainability goals by replacing fossil-based sources with biobased alternatives.